Hammer, D. and Radoff, J. (2014) Children doing science: Essential idiosyncrasy and the challenges of assessment. Commissioned paper for Successful Out-of-School STEM Learning: A Consensus Study, NRC Board on Science Education.  Link to paper; Link to talk

Watkins, J., Spencer, K., and Hammer, D. (2014) Examining young students' problem scoping in engineering design.  Journal of Pre-College Engineering Education, 4 (1), 43-53.  Link to article

Hammer, D & Berland, L.K. (2014) Confusing claims for data:  A critique of common practices for presenting qualitative research on learning.  Journal of the Learning Sciences, 23(1), 37-46.  Link to article

Hammer, D. (2012). Challenges and possibilities of meaningful assessment in large lecture introductory physics. “Background Research Paper No. 40”  for the National Study of Education in Undergraduate Science, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa.  Paper. 

Hammer, D., Goldberg, F., & Fargason, S. (2012).  Responsive teaching and the beginnings of energy in a third grade classroom.  Review of Science, Mathematics and ICT Education, 6(1), 51-72. Link to article

Levin, D. M., Grant, T., & Hammer, D. (2012). Attending and responding to student thinking in science. The American Biology Teacher, 74 (3), 158-162.  Link to article

Berland, L. K., & Hammer, D. (2012). Students' framings and their participation in scientific argumentation. In M. S. Khine (Ed.), Perspectives on Scientific Argumentation (pp. 73-93). New York: Springer.  Link to chapter

Berland, L. K., & Hammer, D. (2012). Framing for scientific argumentation. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 48 (1),68-94.  Link to article

Coffey, J. E., Hammer, D., Levin, D. M., & Grant, T. (2011). The missing disciplinary substance of formative assessment. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 48 (10), 1109-1136.  Link to article

Hammer, D., Gupta, A., & Redish, E. F. (2011).  On static and dynamic intuitive ontologies.  Journal of the Learning Sciences, 20 (1), 163-168.  Link to article  

Gupta, A., Hammer, D., & Redish, E. F. (2010). The case for dynamic models of learners' ontologies in physics. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 19 (3), 285-321.  Link to article

Elby, A., & Hammer, D. (2010). Epistemological resources and framing:  A cognitive framework for helping teachers interpret and respond to their students’ epistemologies.  In L. D. Bendixon & F. C. Feucht (Eds.), Personal Epistemology in the Classroom: Theory, Research, and Implications for Practice  (pp. 409-434). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  Preprint.

Hutchison, P., & Hammer, D. (2010). Attending to student epistemological framing in a science classroom. Science Education, 94(3), 506-524.  Link to article

Conlin, L., Gupta, A. & Hammer, D. (2010).  Framing and resource activation: Bridging the cognitive-situative divide using a dynamic unit of cognitive analysis. In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (Eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 19-24). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.  Link to article

Conlin, L, Gupta, A. and Hammer, D. (2010). Where to find the mind: Identifying the scale of cognitive dynamics  In K. Gomez, L. Lyons, & J. Radinsky (Eds.) Learning in the Disciplines:  Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference of the Learning Sciences (pp. 277-284). Chicago, IL:  ISLS.  Link to article

Sikorski, T. and Hammer, D. (2010).  A critique of how learning progressions research conceptualizes sophistication and progress.  In K. Gomez, L. Lyons, & J. Radinsky (Eds.) Learning in the Disciplines:  Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference of the Learning Sciences (pp. 277-284). Chicago, IL:  ISLS.  Link to article

Levin, D. M., Hammer, D., & Coffey, J. E. (2009). Novice teachers' attention to student thinking. Journal of Teacher Education, 60(2), 142-154.  Link to article

Scherr, R. E., & Hammer, D. (2009). Student Behavior and Epistemological Framing: Examples from Collaborative Active-Learning Activities in Physics. Cognition and Instruction, 27(2), 147-174.  Link to article.

Redish, E. F., & Hammer, D. (2009). Reinventing college physics for biologists: Explicating an epistemological curriculum. American Journal of Physics, 77(7), 629-642. Link to article

Russ, R. S., Coffey, J. E., Hammer, D., & Hutchison, P. (2009). Making Classroom Assessment More Accountable to Scientific Reasoning: A Case for Attending to Mechanistic Thinking. Science Education, 93(5), 875-891.   Link to article

Russ, R. S., Scherr, R. E., Hammer, D., & Mikeska, J. (2008). Recognizing mechanistic reasoning in student scientific inquiry: A framework for discourse analysis developed from philosophy of science.  Science Education 92 (3), 499-525.  Link to article

Brown, D. E., & Hammer, D. (2008). Conceptual change in physics. In S. Vosniadou (Ed.), International Handbook of Research on Conceptual Change. New York:  Routledge.  (pp. 127-154)

Hammer, D., Russ, R., Mikeska, J., & Scherr, R. (2008). Identifying inquiry and conceptualizing students’ abilities.  In R. Duschl & R. Grandy (Eds).  Establishing a Consensus Agenda for K-12 Science Inquiry. Rotterdam, NL:  Sense Publishers. Preprint.

Hammer, D. & van Zee, E. H. (2006).  Seeing the science in children's thinking:  Case studies of student inquiry in physical science.  (Book and DVD) Portsmouth, NH:  Heinemann.

May, D.B., Hammer, D., & Roy, P.  (2006).  Children's analogical reasoning in a 3rd-grade science discussion.  Science Education 90 (2), 316-330.  Link to article

Rosenberg, S.A., Hammer, D., & Phelan (2006) Multiple epistemological coherences in an eighth-grade discussion of the rock cycle. Journal of the Learning Sciences 15(2), 261-292.  Link to article

Hammer, D., Elby, A., Scherr, R. E., & Redish, E. F. (2005). Resources, framing, and transfer. In J. Mestre (Ed.), Transfer of Learning from a Modern Multidisciplinary Perspective (pp. 89-120). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.  Preprint.

van Zee, E. H., Hammer, D., Bell, M., Roy, P., & Peter, J. (2005). Learning and teaching science as inquiry:  A case study of elementary school teachers’ investigations of light.  Science Education 89(6), 1007-1042.  Link to article

Hammer, D., & Coffey, J. (2005). What NASA has to offer. In G. Walker, E. Wahl & L. Rivas (Eds.), NASA and Afterschool Programs:  Connecting to the Future (pp. 76-83). Washington, DC: NASA.  Link to essay


Hammer, D. (2004). The variability of student reasoning, lectures 1-3.  In E. Redish & M. Vicentini (Eds.), Proceedings of the Enrico Fermi Summer School, Course CLVI. Bologna:  Italian Physical Society.

    Lecture 1:  Case studies of children's inquiries, pp. 279-299.  Preprint

    Lecture 2:  Transitions, pp. 301-319.  Preprint.

    Lecture 3:  Manifold cognitive resources, pp 321-340.  Preprint.


Louca, L., Elby, A., Hammer, D., & Kagey, T. (2004). Epistemological resources:  Applying a new epistemological framework to science instruction. Educational Psychologist, 39 (1), 57-68.  Link to article

Hammer, D. & Elby, A. (2003). Tapping students' epistemological resources. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 12 (1), 53-91. Link to article.

diSessa, A., Elby, A, & Hammer, D. (2002). J's epistemological stance and strategies. In G. M. Sinatra and P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Intentional Conceptual Change (pp. 237-290). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Hammer, D. & Elby, A. (2002). On the form of a personal epistemology. In B. K. Hofer, & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Personal Epistemolgy:  The Psychology of Beliefs about Knowledge and Knowing (pp. 169-190). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.  Preprint

Hammer, D. and Schifter, D. (2001).  Practices of inquiry in teaching and research. Cognition and Instruction., 19 (4), 441-478. Link to article

Elby, A. & Hammer, D. (2001). On the substance of a sophisticated epistemology. Science Education, 85 (5), 554-567. Link to article

Hammer, D. (2001). Powerful technology and powerful instruction. In T. Koschmann, R. Hall, & N. Miyake (Eds.), CSCL 2:Carrying Forward the Conversation (pp. 339-403), Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Hammer, D. (2000). Student resources for learning introductory physics. American Journal of Physics, Physics Education Research Supplement, 68 (S1), S52-S59.  Link to article

Hammer, D. (2000). Teacher inquiry.  In J. Minstrell, & E. van Zee (Eds.), Inquiring into Inquiry Learning and Teaching in Science. Washington DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, pp. 184-215. (Also 1999, In the Paper Series of the Center for the Development of Teaching at EDC, in Newton, MA.) Preprint

Hammer, D. (1999). Physics for first-graders? Science Education 83 (6), 797-799.  Full text

Hammer, D. (1997). Discovery learning and discovery teaching. Cognition and Instruction, 15 (4), 485-529.  Link to article

Hammer, D. (1996). More than misconceptions: Multiple perspectives on student knowledge and reasoning, and an appropriate role for education research. American Journal of Physics, 64 (10), 1316-1325.  Link to article

Hammer, D. (1996). Misconceptions or p-prims: How may alternative perspectives of cognitive structure influence instructional perceptions and intentions? Journal of the Learning Sciences, 5 (2), 97-127. Link to article

Hammer, D. and DiMauro, V. (1996). Student teachers on LabNet: Linking preservice teachers with a professional community. Electronic Journal of Science Education, 1 (2). Link to article

Hammer, D. (1995). Epistemological considerations in teaching introductory physics. Science Education, 79 (4), 393-413. Link to article

Hammer, D. (1995). Student inquiry in a physics class discussion. Cognition and Instruction, 13 (3), 401-430. Link to article

Hammer, D. (1994). Students' beliefs about conceptual knowledge in introductory physics. International Journal of Science Education, 16(4), 385-403. Link to article

Hammer, D. (1994). Epistemological beliefs in introductory physics. Cognition and Instruction, 12 (2), 151-183. Link to article

Sherin, B., diSessa, A., and Hammer, D. (1993) Dynaturtle revisited: Learning physics through collaborative design of a computer model. Interactive Learning Environments, 3 (2), p. 91-118.  Link to article

Metz, K., and Hammer, D. (1993). Learning physics in a computer microworld: In what sense a world? Interactive Learning Environments, 3(1), 55-76.  Link to article

diSessa, A., Hammer, D., Sherin, B., and Kolpakowski, T. (1991). Inventing graphing: Meta-representational expertise in children. Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 10, p. 117-160.  Link to article

Hammer, D. (1989). Two approaches to learning physics. The Physics Teacher, 27, p. 664-671.  Link to article

Publications